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Essay



 
 
 

 


U.S. embassy Baghdad cable from May 1953 mentions several Iraqi officials who will be delivering anticommunist lectures at government camps.


Documentation on Early Cold War
U.S. Propaganda Activities in the Middle East

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Document 1: Department of State, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs Memorandum from Wallace Murray to Archibald MacLeish. "Letter from Colonel Harold B. Hoskins" [American Movie Propaganda], March 21, 1945.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 54D403, 1920-1952.

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt favor showing American movies in the Middle East.

Document 2: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Edward S. Crocker II to the Department of State. "Recent Developments in Connection with the Kurdish-Language News Bulletin," April 10, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Plans for distribution of propaganda to Iraqi Kurds.

Document 3: Department of State Airgram from Dean Acheson. [Anti-Americanism in the Arab World], May 1, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Calls for propaganda campaign to counter rising anti-Americanism.

Document 4: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "Motion Pictures--The Film Two Cities," May 16, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Suggests Walt Disney might help out with propaganda.

Document 5: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "Priority Aims and Objectives of the USIE Program in Iran Calls for Enhancing U.S. Prestige and Demonstrating Communist Fallacies," June 5, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

United States Information Service goals include promoting anticommunism, increasing Iranian stability, and enhancing U.S. prestige.

Document 6: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Henry F. Grady to the Department of State. "Proposed New Program for USIE, Iran," July 6, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

United States Information and Educational Exchange Program goals include disseminating propaganda without arousing suspicion of foreign influence, and reaching out to the "religious element."

Document 7: United States Embassy, Soviet Union Cable from Alan G. Kirk to the Department of State. [Voice of America and Radio Tehran], August 19, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Indicates that there are plans for an "intimate working relationship" between the Voice of America and Radio Tehran.

Document 8: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Henry F. Grady to the Department of State. [Voice of America Transmitters in Bahrain and Iran], September 19, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Notes concern that propaganda transmitters in Bahrain would undermine the U.S. position in Iran.

Document 9: United States Embassy, Egypt Despatch from A.F. Lager to the Department of State. "Transmitting Copy of Notes re 'Certain Aspects of the Political Situation at Kuwait--The Company's Local Relations and Other Non-technical Matters Connected with These Operations'" [Internal Memorandum Found at Trans World Airlines Plane Crash Site], September 25, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Gulf Oil official comments on the political situation in Kuwait.

Document 10: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Henry F. Grady to the Department of State. [U.S.-Iranian Joint Propaganda Efforts], October 19, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

U.S. and Iranian propaganda activities emphasize anticommunism, U.S. aid, and religion.

Document 11: United States Embassy, Iran Cable to the Department of State. [Iran's Propaganda Director and the Voice of America], December 8, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes U.S. problems with Iran's director of propaganda.

Document 12: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "Motion Pictures--Pro-Soviet Feature Film North Star," December 28, 1950.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Suggests that State Department ensure that "pro-Russian" movie "Red Star" not be shown in Iran; film was directed by Lewis Milestone, written by Lillian Hellman, starred Walter Huston, Anne Baxter, Dana Andrews, Farley Granger, and Erich von Stroheim, depicted a Russian village under German occupation and an evil Nazi doctor, and was targeted by the House Un-American Affairs Committee.

Document 13: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Cable from William D. Brewer to the Department of State. "Egyptian Newspaper Article on American Military Aid to Saudi Arabia," January 5, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Department of State Lot Files 52-40. Mutual Defense Assistance Programs--Project Approvals.

A Saudi-funded newspaper discusses plans for U.S. military assistance for Saudi Arabia, and criticizes reports that the U.S. has asked for guarantees regarding use of the arms.

Document 14: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Henry F. Grady to the Department of State. [Iranian Propaganda Director Dismissed], January 6, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

A former director of propaganda has been restored to de facto control.

Document 15: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Henry F. Grady to the Department of State. [Appointment of New Iranian Propaganda Director], January 10, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

New propaganda director describes his plans.

Document 16: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "Notes on Expanded Program for Iran" [Includes Memorandum], January 12, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Recommends joint U.S.-Iranian propaganda efforts.

Document 17: Department of State, Under Secretary Report from James E. Webb to James S. Lay, Jr. "Progress Report by the Under Secretary of State on the Implementation of United States Policy toward Israel and the Arab States (NSC 47/2)," January 26, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Reports improvements in Israeli and Arab attitudes toward the U.S.

Document 18: Department of State, Division of International Broadcasting Memorandum from W.J. Porter to Frederick Awalt. [Voice of America in Kuwait], February 19, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Objects to British rejection of Voice of America facility in Kuwait.

Document 19: United States Consulate General. Dhahran (Saudi Arabia) Cable to the Department of State. [Trip to Oman regarding Voice of America], February 20, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot Files.

Reviews plans for discussion with Sultan of Oman regarding Voice of America facility.

Document 20: Department of State Report. "Conference of Middle East Chiefs of Mission (Istanbul, February 14-21, 1951): Agreed Conclusions and Recommendations," c. February 21, 1951.

Reviews U.S. goals for the Middle East.

Document 21: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Edward S. Crocker II to the Department of State. "Anti-communist Poster Material Prepared by USIS Baghdad," March 10, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes anti-communist posters prepared for Iraq.

Document 22: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Edward S. Crocker II to the Department of State. "Foreign Leader Grants for Iraqis," March 26, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Says that offering "leadership grants" to even "mildly pinkish" Iraqis would be ineffective, because they would not be allowed to enter the U.S.

Document 23: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Memorandum of Conversation. "Anglo-American Cooperation in the Psychological Field in the Arab States and Iran" [Attached to Cover Memorandum Dated April 2, 1951], March 30, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Department of State Lot Files. Lot 57 D 298.

British embassy official suggests U.S.-U.K. "psychological cooperation."

Document 24: Analysis from Stephen Penrose to the Department of State. "Comment on "The Soviet Challenge in the Near East"--Princeton, June 2, 1951," June 2, 1951.

The president of the American University of Beirut says that Soviet propaganda outlets are being established in the Middle East and are exploiting the Palestine issue.

Document 25: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Cable from Raymond Hare to the Department of State. [Communist Propaganda], June 5, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Says that there is no communist propaganda in Saudi Arabia.

Document 26: United States Consulate General. Dhahran (Saudi Arabia) Letter from William A. Eddy to Dorothy Thompson. [Christian-Muslim Anticommunist Propaganda Theme], June 7, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot Files. 57 D 298.

William Eddy discusses proposals for Muslim statements in favor of a Christian-Muslim alliance against communism.

Document 27: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Henry F. Grady to the Department of State. [Kurdish Voice of America Broadcasts], August 6, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Outlines plans for Kurdish Voice of America broadcasts, while avoiding encouragement of Kurdish nationalism.

Document 28: Department of State, Secretary Memorandum from Dean Acheson to Dwight D. Eisenhower. "Urgent Request to You from King Ibn Saud for the Services of General Graham," August 9, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Dean Acheson advises President Eisenhower to send emergency medical help to ailing King Abd al-Aziz (ibn Saud).

Document 29: Department of State, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum to Burton Berry. "Mr. Nolting's Misgivings re Visit by Prince Misha'al," August 22, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Recommends inviting Saudi Arabia's defense minister to visit the U.S.

Document 30: Department of State Airgram from Dean Acheson to the United States Embassy, Iraq. [Opposition to Book Publication], August 29, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

State Department opposes publication of a book because of its "sensational approach."

Document 31: United States Embassy, Turkey Cable from George Wadsworth to the Department of State. [Broadcasts to Turkey's Kurds], September 4, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Advises against broadcasting propaganda to Turkish Kurds because of Turkish government opposition.

Document 32: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Memorandum from Burton Berry to the Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. "VOA Broadcasts in Kurdish," September 14, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Says that broadcasting propaganda directed at Kurds from Turkey is not possible, but use of Iraqi or Iranian facilities is still under consideration.

Document 33: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Memorandum from Glenn A. Abbey to the Department of State. [Anticommunist Propaganda], October 2, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Embassy opposes distribution of anticommunist propaganda in Saudi Arabia because the government would object.

Document 34: Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Letter from Edward W. Barrett to George Cameron. [Propaganda Advice], October 4, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Asks professor for advice on U.S. propaganda for the Middle East.

Document 35: University of Michigan. Department of Near Eastern Studies Letter from George Cameron to Edward W. Barrett. [Propaganda Activities in Iraq; Attached to Cover Memorandum], October 24, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Professor provides observations regarding the effectiveness of American and Soviet propaganda in Kurdish areas of Iraq.

Document 36: New American Library of World Literature, Inc. Letter from Victor Weybright to Edward W. Barrett. [Support for Publisher's Tour of Middle East], November 6, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

A publisher describes his book distribution activities abroad.

Document 37: United States. Department of the Air Force Memorandum from Robert H. Jones. "Visit of His Royal Highness Prince Misha'al Abdul Aziz al Saud, Minister of Defense, Saudi Arabia," November 6, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes U.S. Air Force plans for a visit to the U.S. by Saudi Arabia's defense minister.

Document 38: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "Motion Pictures: Cooperation of American Newsreels," November 10, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes Iranian reactions to American propaganda newsreels.

Document 39: Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Letter from Edward W. Barrett to George Cameron. [Propaganda Campaign], November 19, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Responds to professor's comments regarding Middle East propaganda and requests further information.

Document 40: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. [Filming of Iranian Army Celebration], November 20, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Says propaganda value of filming Iranian army celebrations including U.S. military equipment and personnel outweighs danger of linkage between newsreel and the State Department.

Document 41: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. [Iranian Oil Policy], November 21, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Suggests that the Voice of America transmit U.S. press and public criticism of Prime Minister Mossadeq's oil policy.

Document 42: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Letter from Raymond Hare to Frederick Awalt. [Incident at Dhahran Air Field], November 25, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot Files. Lot File 57 D 298.

Recommends proceeding slowly in introducing propaganda to Saudi Arabia because of possible unforeseen consequences.

Document 43: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Memorandum from George C. McGhee to H. Freeman Matthews. "Visits of Chiefs of States," November 28, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Suggests that Saudi King Abd al-Aziz be first on a list of potential Near East chief of state visitors to the U.S.

Document 44: Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Letter from Edward W. Barrett to Victor Weybright. [State Department Involvement with Private Publisher], November 30, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Promises further cooperation with chairman of private publishing house.

Document 45: Department of State Airgram from James E. Webb to the United States Embassy, Iran. [Newsreel Use in Iran], December 11, 1951.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Lauds discretion in handling of U.S.-sponsored newsreels in Iran.

Document 46: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Despatch from Raymond Hare to the Department of State. [Proposed Saudi Pamphlet Program], January 8, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Says that distribution of U.S. propaganda in Saudi Arabia would be counter-productive.

Document 47: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "IE: Local Newspaper Item on USIE Radio Scripts," January 14, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Embassy responds to Iranian newspaper report that Radio Tehran is broadcasting American propaganda.

Document 48: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "I.E.: Local Newspaper Items of USIE Radio Scripts," January 21, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Embassy describes Iranian newspaper account regarding American propaganda on Radio Tehran.

Document 49: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. [Closure of Provincial Foreign Cultural Centers], January 30, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Reports that Iranian government has ordered the closing of all foreign information and cultural centers outside of Tehran.

Document 50: United States Consulate. Mashhad (Iran) Cable to the Department of State. [Closure of Foreign Information and Cultural Centers], January 30, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Embassy discusses closure of information and cultural centers with Iranian official.

Document 51: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. [Closure of Foreign Information and Cultural Centers], February 3, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

An Iranian official expresses regret about the closing of foreign information and cultural centers but says that some had engaged in activities inimical to Iran's interests.

Document 52: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Edward S. Crocker II to the Department of State. [Opinion Survey], February 6, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

A graduate student requests government funding for a purportedly independent academic survey of opinion among young Iraqis.

Document 53: Department of State Cable from Dean Acheson to the United States Embassy, Egypt. [Religious Programming for Radio Jidda], February 11, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The State Department sends religious programming in Central Asian languages for broadcast by Radio Jidda, and inquires about lyrics for an Armenian oratorio.

Document 54: United States Legation. Lebanon Memorandum from John H. Bruins [Influencing Public Opinion], February 26, 1952.

Former Iraqi official mentions plans for influencing public opinion regarding Islam on the basis of tolerance.

Document 55: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum from Frederick Awalt to Samuel K.C. Kopper. "Conversation with Prince Saud," March 10, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 57 D 298.

Saudi Prince Saud campaigns for his succession and discusses his plans for a "pan-Islamic movement".

Document 56: Franklin (Michigan). Chamber of Commerce Letter from S.B. Vaughan to the Department of State. [Concern in Michigan; Includes Letter of Reply], March 22, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Michigan Chamber of Commerce expresses concern about Iraqi requests for tourist brochures.

Document 57: Department of State, Policy Planning Staff Memorandum of Conversation. "Functions of the PSB," March 26, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Records of the Policy Planning Staff, 1947-1957.

Reviews Psychological Planning Board strategy for the Middle East.

Document 58: Department of State Transcript. "Working Group on Special Materials for Arab and Other Moslem Countries" [Attached to Cover Memorandum Dated April 2, 1952; Includes Attachment], April 1, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Considers options for improving America's image in Arab countries.

Document 59: United States. National Security Council. Executive Secretary Report to the United States. National Security Council. "United States Objectives and Policies with Respect to the Arab States and Israel" [Annex to NSC 129], April 7, 1952.

Reviews options for achieving U.S. objectives in the Middle East.

Document 60: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "IIA: Country Plan," April 28, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Outlines propaganda plans for Iran.

Document 61: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. [Embassy Support for Iranian Magazine], May 2, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes arrangement for publishing Iranian magazine as propaganda outlet.

Document 62: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Edward S. Crocker II to the Department of State. "Proposed Information Program for Iraq," May 16, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Outlines detailed propaganda plans for Iraq.

Document 63: United States Embassy, United Kingdom Letter from Joseph Palmer II to Samuel K.C. Kopper. [British Objection to Voice of America Station in Kuwait; Attached to Cover Notes], June 18, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 57 D 298.

Describes British reasons for opposing a Voice of America station in Kuwait.

Document 64: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Philip W. Ireland to the Department of State. ""When the Communists Came"," July 8, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Review panel questions the value of showing an anticommunist film in the Middle East.

Document 65: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Philip W. Ireland to the Department of State. "Mechanics of Controlling an Election," July 18, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

At the State Department's request, the American embassy describes ways elections can be controlled in Iraq.

Document 66: Department of State Cable from Dean Acheson to the United States Embassy, Iran. [State Department Recommends Neutral Tone], July 18, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Advises neutral tone for International Information Administration media following the temporary ouster of Prime Minister Mossadeq during Iranian oil crisis.

Document 67: Department of State Internal Paper to the United States Legation. Jordan [et al.]. "Franklin Publications, Inc.," July 22, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Informs U.S. missions of the establishment of Franklin Publications, Inc.

Document 68: United States Consulate General. Dhahran (Saudi Arabia) Letter from Max Bishop to Parker T. Hart. [Military Show of Strength], July 28, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Supports a "friendly display of force" in the Persian Gulf area.

Document 69: Department of State Cable from Dean Acheson to the United States Embassy, Iran. [Media Guidance for Iran], July 28, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

International Information Administration says media should show minimal interest in Iranian political developments.

Document 70: Department of State, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Letter from Parker T. Hart to Max Bishop. [Display of Force], c. September 5, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Says State Department has been considering a display of force in the Persian Gulf region for a long time.

Document 71: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. [U.S. Propaganda Program in Iran], September 6, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Assesses effectiveness of U.S. propaganda program in Iran.

Document 72: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Cable to the Department of State. [Saudi Arabia and U.S. Objectives], September 7, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Advises avoiding propaganda that would be opposed by Saudi government.

Document 73: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Burton Berry to the Department of State. [Iraqi Attitudes], September 11, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Discusses factors that influence Iraqi opinion.

Document 74: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Special IIA Projects for Islamic Countries," October 1, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Recommends propaganda activities expected to be most effective in Iraq.

Document 75: Department of State, Executive Secretariat Letter from W.J. McWilliams to William H. Draper, Jr. [Forwards Minutes from Chiefs of Mission Meeting], October 2, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Records of the Executive Secretariat. U.S. Mission to NATO.

Presents alternative opinions regarding implications for the U.S. of declining British prestige in the Middle East.

Document 76: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Harry L. Smith to the Department of State. "Arabic Anti-communist Pamphlet Program," October 7, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Discusses methods for disseminating propaganda in Iraq.

Document 77: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Partisans of Peace Object to Atomic Display" [Includes Article], October 18, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes protest against "atomic display" in United States Information Service window.

Document 78: United States. International Information Administration. Information Center Service Letter from Dan Lacy to Datus C. Smith, Jr. [Guidance for Franklin Publications], October 27, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Reviews problems of Arab countries and outlines objectives for Franklin Publications, Inc.

Document 79: Department of State Cable to the United States Embassy, Jordan. [Travel Arrangements], October 30, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes Middle East itinerary for Franklin Publications, Inc. board members.

Document 80: Department of State Airgram from David K.E. Bruce to the United States Embassy, Iraq. [Top Secret Clearances], November 4, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Informs embassy that Franklin Publications, Inc. officers have Top Secret clearances.

Document 81: Department of State, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum from Richard E. Funkhouser to Parker T. Hart. "Additional Notes on Possible Iraq, Syria, Lebanese Reactions to MEDO," November 5, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Department of State Lot Files. Record Group 59. 57 D 298.

Assesses usefulness to U.S. of Arab states joining a Middle East Defense Organization.

Document 82: Department of State, Division of Public Studies Report. "U.S. Public Opinion on Iran," November 10, 1952.
Source: National Archives Group 59. Office of Public Opinion Studies 1945-65. Box 41. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot Files. Office of Public Opinion Studies, 1945-1965.

Describes U.S. public opinion regarding Iran, the Shah, Prime Minister Mossadeq, and the British-Iranian oil crisis, as reflected in the media and opinion surveys.

Document 83: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Burton Berry to the Department of State. [Attack on United States Information Service Building], November 23, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes attacks by Iraqi demonstrators against United States Information Service office in Baghdad.

Document 84: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Burton Berry to the Department of State. [Occupation of United States Information Service Building], November 24, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes effects of attack on United States Information Service building in Baghdad.

Document 85: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Burton Berry to the Department of State. [Possible Disclosure of Classified Material], November 24, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Discusses possible loss of documents resulting from United States Information Service attack.

Document 86: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Burton Berry to the Department of State. [Ambassador Berry Speaks with Prime Minister], December 13, 1952.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Iraqi prime minister reaffirms his opposition to communism and raises fears about influence of Iranian religious activism in Iraq.

Document 87: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "IIA: Motion Pictures: Iranian Governmental Document Proposing Mobile Unit Operation Changes," January 7, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Internal Iranian document assesses and offers recommendations regarding film program.

Document 88: United States Embassy, Lebanon Memorandum from Nestor C. Ortiz to the Department of State. "Middle East Reaction to Federal Trade Commission 'Report on the International Petroleum Cartel' and the U.S. Department of Justice Suit against Designated International Petroleum Companies" [Includes Embassy Memorandum and Trans-Arabian Pipeline Company (TAPLINE) Report], January 13, 1953.

Oil company representatives complain that public availability of information about Federal Trade Commission investigation of oil cartel activities, including price-fixing, will damage U.S. prestige in the Middle East.

Document 89: Department of State Memorandum from Wilson S. Compton to David K.E. Bruce. "Colloquium on Islamic Culture to Be Held in September, 1953, under the Joint Sponsorship of the Library of Congress and Princeton University" [Attached to Cover Note Dated January 16, 1953; Includes Enclosure], January 13, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes plans for an Islamic colloquium, intended to advance "both short term and long term United States political objectives in the Moslem area."

Document 90: Princeton University Letter from Bayard Dodge to Richard H. Sanger. [Colloquium on Islamic Culture], February 2, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes plans to get oil company and Franklin Publications support for an Islamic colloquium.

Document 91: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum. "Arab Public Relations in the U.S.," February 13, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 57 D 298.

A former government official reports negotiating with Arab governments about organizing a public relations campaign on their behalf.

Document 92: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Philip W. Ireland to the Department of State. "Opportunities for Anti-communist Activities among Students [Includes Memorandum of Conversation], March 30, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Iraq's education minister asks for U.S. help with an anticommunist program to indoctrinate student protesters, including the inculcation of nationalist values.

Document 93: Department of State Memorandum from G. Huntington Damon to Fred L. Hadsel. "Briefing Paper for Secretary--Islamic Colloquium" [Includes Summary], April 30, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Forwards a briefing paper for Secretary of State Acheson on a planned Islamic colloquium, intended to make "an important contribution to the United States objectives in the Muslim area."

Document 94: Colloquium on Islamic Culture Letter from Helen M. Anderson to Richard H. Sanger. [Background Information on Islamic Colloquium; Includes Minutes, Letter, and Budget], May 8, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Lists expenses for an Islamic colloquium, budgeted at $25,000 (approximately $160,000 in today's dollars.)

Document 95: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Anti-communist 'Brain Washing' Program to Be Instituted at Summer ROTC Camps for Students," May 26, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Mentions several Iraqi officials who will be delivering anticommunist lectures at government camps.

Document 96: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. "Attaching Memorandum Entitled 'Report on the Use of Anti-Soviet Material within Iran during Period Covered by Last Two Years'," May 29, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes recent anticommunist activities by the American embassy in Iran.

Document 97: Department of State Airgram from John Foster Dulles to the United States Embassy, Iran. [Placement of Stories in U.S. Media], June 26, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The State Department tells the American embassy that it can inspire articles and editorials in the U.S. media conveying certain points of view, which could then be broadcast to Iran through the Voice of America.

Document 98: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Results of Evaluation Survey of 'Where Are They Now?'," July 6, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Conveys results of a poll to determine whether pamphlets disseminated by the United States Information Service reached their intended targets.

Document 99: Department of State Airgram from John Foster Dulles. "Information Plan for the Arab Area," July 6, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Outlines plans to capitalize on good feelings resulting from the secretary of state's visit to the Middle East.

Document 100: United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Plans Memorandum. [Radio Report on Coup Plotting], July 7, 1953.

Summarizes reports broadcast by a clandestine radio station in Soviet Central Asia on coup plotting by the U.S., Britain, and the Shah of Iran.

Document 101: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Philip W. Ireland to the Department of State. "Evaluation of 'Hoja' Films," July 18, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The American embassy reports highly mixed responses from various audiences to the showing of a film using puppets and characters from Middle East folklore to convey an anticommunist message.

Document 102: Department of State, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum from Burton Berry to Henry Byroade. [Secretary of State's Understanding of Middle Eastern Problems; Attached to Cover Sheet Dated July 23, 1953], July 23, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 57 D 298.

The ambassador to Iraq hopes that a visit to the Middle East by the secretary of state will improve the State Department's understanding of regional issues.

Document 103: United States Embassy, Egypt Despatch from Jefferson Caffery to the Department of State. "Colloquium on Islamic Culture and Saeed Ramadhan," July 27, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The American embassy in Egypt recommends that Muslim Brotherhood member Saeed Ramadhan be invited to attend the U.S. government's Islamic colloquium.

Document 104: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Visit to the Barzani Area" [Includes Memorandum], August 11, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes the impoverishment of the Kurdish area of Iraq following government counterinsurgency operations, and mixed reactions regarding possible U.S. propaganda activities in the region.

Document 105: United States Embassy, Iraq. Office of the Air Attaché Memorandum to the United States. Air Force. Chief of Staff. "Joint Weeka Nr.34--Section I" [Iraqi Assistance for the Shah], August 22, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes the royal treatment provided for the Shah by the Iraqi government during his short-lived exile from Iran, pro-Mossadeq demonstrations, and efforts to staff U.S. offices for an Arab League propaganda program.

Document 106: United States Embassy, Iran. Public Affairs Officer Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the United States Information Agency. "Mo Pix: Recent Action by Censorship Commission in Connection with The Korea Story and Let Us Live," September 2, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The United States Information Service predicts that the coup in Iran will create greater opportunities for propaganda.

Document 107: Department of State Cable from Theodore C. Streibert to the United States Embassy, Iran. [Revitalized Propaganda Campaign for Iran; Attached to Transmittal Sheet], September 11, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Asks for advice from the ambassador to Iran regarding United States Information Agency and State Department propaganda support for a post-coup Iranian alliance with the United States.

Document 108: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Edward C. Wells to the United States Information Agency. [Media Guidance regarding Iran], September 15, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The American embassy in Iran and the United States Information Service offer recommendations for post-coup propaganda for Iran and the United States.

Document 109: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from Edward C. Wells to the United States Information Agency. [Propaganda Focused on U.S. Aid to Iran], September 19, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes emergency staffing needed to handle propaganda for Iran, emphasizing United States economic assistance.

Document 110: United States Information Service. Tehran (Iran) Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the United States Information Agency. "USIS Program--Iran," October 2, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Discusses need for United States efforts to make Iran's post-coup government successful.

Document 111: United States Information Agency Cable to the United States Embassy, Iran. [Embassy Materials Requested for U.S. Media], October 13, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The United States Information Agency asks for press materials favorable to Iran's post-coup government for U.S. news media exploitation.

Document 112: Department of State Letter from John H. Stutesman, Jr. to Loy Henderson. [Propaganda Situation following Coup], October 28, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

A State Department official describes the "variety of propaganda agencies" in Washington, for the benefit of the American ambassador to Iran.

Document 113: Department of State, Under Secretary for Political Affairs Memorandum from C.D. Huyler to John H. Stutesman, Jr. "Your Letter of October 28 to Ambassador Henderson," October 29, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Corrects certain points in an earlier letter to the ambassador to Iran regarding State Department propaganda activities.

Document 114: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Loy Henderson to the Department of State. "Use of Material in American Publications concerning Iranian Situation" [Includes Attachments], November 7, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The embassy in Iran prepares an article linking U.S. economic assistance to settling the British-Iranian oil dispute for placement in the New York Times, Time magazine, or Newsweek, blaming the Mossadeq government for the decimation of Iran's economy caused by the British embargo.

Document 115: United States Consulate General. Kuwait Despatch from Harrison M. Symmes to the Department of State. "Newsweek Magazine Report on Communism in Kuwait," November 16, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Discusses a Newsweek article describing Kuwait as a "new soft spot" for communism, despite information to the contrary.

Document 116: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Cable to the Department of State. [Request that Vice President Nixon Congratulate Saudi King], November 16, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Recommends that Vice President Nixon visit Saudi Arabia for King Saud's coronation ceremony in order to provide reassurance about the U.S.-Saudi "special relationship."

Document 117: Department of State, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum from F.O. Allen to Parker T. Hart. "Possible Effects on Arab Attitudes toward the Unified Plan and a Palestinian Settlement, and Potential Effects on the 'Cold War' Posture of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq If Large-Scale Economic Aid is Given to Egypt at this Juncture," December 23, 1953.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 57 D 298.

Opposes aid for Egypt because the U.S. wants to link economic assistance with support for U.S. objectives.

Document 118: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Anti-communist Campaign of Iraq Government" [Includes Leaflet], January 13, 1954.

The U.S. ambassador reports that his embassy will aid Iraq's anticommunist propaganda program.

Document 119: United States Embassy, Iraq Cable from Burton Berry to the Department of State. [Attacking Iraqi Neutralism], January 19, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The U.S. embassy believes that providing anticommunist material to Iraq's propaganda department will be more effective than United States Information Agency articles.

Document 120: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Samples of Anti-communist Propaganda," March 16, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes anticommunist documents distributed in Iraq and says material linking communism and Zionism has been less effective than expected; hence, future propaganda will stress nationalist themes.

Document 121: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Report of PAO Dinsmore Shows Extent of Communist Organization in Sulaimaniya Liwa," April 5, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

An embassy public affairs officer describes a favorable reception for Kurdish propaganda in the Sulaimaniya region of Iraq.

Document 122: United States Embassy, Iraq Despatch from Burton Berry to the Department of State. "Anti-communist Campaign on Radio Baghdad," April 7, 1954.

Examples of propaganda broadcast by Baghdad radio accuse communists of hypocrisy and praise a Canadian anticommunist association.

Document 123: United States Embassy, Iran Despatch from Edward C. Wells to the Department of State. "Educational Exchange: U.S. Specialist Program," May 20, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

A public affairs officer suggests that Iranians have biased impressions of the situations of Native and Black Americans based on accounts in leftist books, and advises against visits in close proximity of representatives from the two groups.

Document 124: United States Embassy, Iraq. Office of the Air Attaché Cable to the United States. Air Force. Chief of Staff. [Ba'athists Emerge], May 22, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

An air attaché summarizes Iraqi intelligence issues, including the "first announcement existence ASR (Arab socialist resurrectionist: Ba'ath) group in Iraq."

Document 125: United States Consulate General. Kuwait Despatch from Harrison M. Symmes to the Department of State. "Communist Publications Found on Sale in Kuwait" [Includes List of Titles], May 29, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

The American consulate reports the availability for sale of "communist-line books" in Kuwait on subjects including self-help, philosophy, psychology, health, history, the Soviet Union, and The Basis of American Imperialism, and recommends that the office "and its owner be placed under immediate surveillance."

Document 126: United States. National Security Council. Office of the Executive Secretary Memorandum from James S. Lay, Jr. to the United States. National Security Council. "United States Objectives and Policies with Respect to the Middle East" [Includes Draft Amendments], July 6, 1954.

Outlines U.S. policy for the Middle East, including military objectives.

Document 127: United States. National Security Council Report. "United States Objectives and Policies with Respect to the Near East," July 23, 1954.

Outlines U.S. policy for the Middle East, including goals for a regional defense arrangement, and describes propaganda activities.

Document 128: United States Information Service. Baghdad (Iraq) Despatch from David Newsom to the Department of State. "Naji Musa" [Anticommunist Pamphlet], August 17, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes an incident involving the discovery of an Iraqi student's anticommunist letter, provided to the United States Information Service, leading to his ostracism for "being in the pay of the imperialists."

Document 129: United States Consulate General. Dhahran (Saudi Arabia) Despatch from Windsor G. Hackler to the Department of State. "Distribution of Subversive Leaflet in al-Khobar" [Includes Attachments], August 25, 1954.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Decimal Files, 1950-1954.

Describes an anti-royal family, anti-American leaflet found in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, and criticizes the provincial government's capabilities for "preventing subversive activity."

Document 130: United States. National Security Council. Operations Coordinating Board Memorandum to the United States. National Security Council. "Detailed Development of Major Actions relating to the Near East (NSC 5428) from April 17, 1955 through October 7, 1955" [Includes Paper], October 11, 1955.

Describes actions taken in support of U.S. objectives in the Middle East.

Document 131: United States Information Agency Cable. "Matters of Particular Interest in Middle East, with Citation of Exploitable Points," March 28, 1957.
Source: National Archives. Record Group 59. Records of the Department of State. Lot File 57 D 616.

The United States Information Service outlines ways in which the U.S. could utilize the Eisenhower administration's response to the Suez crisis for public relations advantage.

Document 132: United States. National Security Council Memorandum. "Statement by George V. Allen, Director, U.S. Information Agency, at the National Security Council, July 24, 1958" [Pages Missing], July 24, 1958.

The United States Information Agency director suggests that the U.S. should reach an accommodation with nationalist forces in the Middle East.

Document 133: United States. White House Letter from Dwight D. Eisenhower to Edward L.R. Elson. [Response to Letter on the Middle East], July 31, 1958.

President Eisenhower discusses Middle East issues with his confidant, Reverend Edward Elson, including his practice of stressing "the spiritual factor in our relationships" in all his discussions with Arab leaders.

Document 134: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs. Office of Near Eastern Affairs Memorandum from Armin H. Meyer to G. Lewis Jones. "American Friends of the Middle East," September 24, 1959.

Comments on the role and utility of the organization American Friends of the Middle East.

Document 135: United States. White House Memorandum from Dwight Chapin to H.R. Haldeman. "The Shah's Remarks," October 21, 1969.

Tells H.R. Haldeman that the White House should approach "friendly columnists" to ensure coverage of the Shah of Iran's praise of President Nixon.

Document 136: United States Embassy, Iran Cable from William H. Sullivan to the Department of State. "Attack on U.S.-Supported Publishing House," December 26, 1977.

Reports that Iranian students attacked a facility of the Franklin Publishing company, as part of "manifestations of some sort" connected with President Carter's visit to Iran.

Document 137: United States Consulate. Shiraz (Iran) Airgram from Victor L. Tomseth to the Department of State. "Official Support for the Shah and Anti-American Sentiment," October 30, 1978.

A consulate official tells the State Department that American scholars based in Shiraz have reported growing anti-Americanism in Iran, exacerbated by President Carter's recent statements supporting the Shah.

Document 138: United States Embassy, Kuwait Cable from Frank E. Maestrone to the Department of State. "Political Reassessment: Orientation and Influence of the Mass Media," June 17, 1979.

The embassy in Kuwait reports that Kuwait's press represents no threat to "security and stability" because it is totally controlled by the government.

Document 139: United States. Central Intelligence Agency Cable. [Anti-Soviet Demonstration], September 28, 1979.

Describes a protest against Soviet involvement in Afghanistan organized in New Delhi by a Central Intelligence Agency "asset," and extensive coverage by the Indian news media.

Document 140: Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Memorandum from Nathaniel W. Howell to Harold H. Saunders. "Appropriate Settings for a Presidential Statement on Islam," December 14, 1979.

Suggests alternative venues for President Carter to deliver a statement on Islam.

Document 141: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Cable from James A. Placke to the United States Embassy, Egypt. "Secretary's Visit: Press Questions," April 1, 1981.

Saudi and U.S. officials coordinate a question for Secretary of State Alexander Haig regarding the Gulf Cooperation Council.

Document 142: Department of State, Executive Secretary Memorandum from M. Charles Hill to Robert C. McFarlane. "Public Diplomacy Strategy for the Middle East" [Includes Memorandum], November 2, 1983.

Describes planning for a short-term "public diplomacy strategy" for Lebanon and a longer-term strategy for the Middle East as a whole.

Document 143: Department of State, Executive Secretary Memorandum from M. Charles Hill to Robert C. McFarlane. "Public Diplomacy Strategy for the Middle East and Lebanon" [Includes Memorandum and Policy Strategy], November 19, 1983.

Outlines objectives, methods, and themes for a "public diplomacy" campaign.

Document 144: Department of State, Executive Secretary Memorandum from M. Charles Hill to Robert C. McFarlane. "Public Diplomacy Strategy for the Middle East and Lebanon" [Includes Memorandum, Press
Themes, Speakers List, and List of Project Programs], March 2, 1984.

Reports on a Middle East public diplomacy working group's updated plans and "areas where urgent additional activity is required."

Document 145: National Endowment for Democracy Project Proposal. "Afghanistan Democratic Education Project," c. 1986.

Submits a proposal for $181,000 in funding for teaching, research, and propaganda activities in Soviet-occupied Afghanistan.

Document 146: Department of State, Executive Secretary Paper from Melvyn Levitsky to Frank C. Carlucci. "Public Diplomacy Action Plans" [Includes Background Paper], c. May 12, 1987.

Outlines "public diplomacy" goals for Afghanistan, such as keeping war at the forefront of international attention.

Document 147: United States Embassy, Guinea-Bissau Cable from John D. Blacken to the United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia. "Videos of Saudi Propaganda Offensive," August 6, 1987.

The U.S. embassy in Guinea-Bissau asks for Saudi video tapes of "riots by Iranians" to use in its public diplomacy program.

Document 148: United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Cable from Hume A. Horan to the United States Embassy, Guinea-Bissau. "Videos of Saudi Propaganda Offensive," August 10, 1987.

The embassy in Saudi Arabia promises to dispatch videotapes of Iranian riots in Mecca to the embassy in Guinea-Bissau.

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