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Japan and the United States: diplomatic, security, and economic relations, Part III, 1961-2000.

January 17-21, 1960

Japanese prime minister Kishi visits Washington, D.C. for talks with President Eisenhower. On January 19, the two leaders sign the new U.S.-Japan security treaty at a White House ceremony. Both leaders pledge to regard an attack on Japan or U.S. bases there as a threat to the security of both nations. They also sign minutes to the treaty and a new administrative accord governing the use of bases by the United States and the conduct of U.S. personnel. Eisenhower pledges that the United States will not intentionally act contrary to the wishes of the Japanese government in the use of bases or on questions regarding the weapons it will deploy there. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

April 15, 1960

Foreign Minister Aiichiro Fujiyama testifies before the Diet Special Committee for National Security that the "Three elements requiring pre-consultation [under the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty] are introduction of nuclear warheads, introduction of long-range missiles, and construction of a missile launch base." He also says that "Pre-consultation is required if the Seventh Fleet engages in strategic combat using Japan as its base." (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

May 26, 1960

Hundreds of thousands demonstrate in Tokyo, demanding Prime Minister Kishi's resignation, new elections, and cancellation of the upcoming Eisenhower state visit to Japan. The upper house of the Diet extends its current session to approve the new U.S.-Japan mutual security treaty. (Chronology in, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 10, 1960

Presidential press secretary James Hagerty and appointments secretary Thomas Stephens, in Japan to prepare for Eisenhower's visit to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the U.S.-Japan Friendship and Commerce Treaty, are mobbed at Haneda Airport by some 60,000 stone-throwing, anti-American demonstrators. Along with Ambassador Douglas MacArthur, they are besieged in their car for an hour and 20 minutes, then rescued by a U.S. Marine Corps helicopter. No one is hurt, although the car was damaged. Ambassador MacArthur later receives an apology from the Japanese government. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 22-23, 1960

The new U.S.-Japan Mutual Cooperation and Security Treaty comes into effect, as the U.S. Senate ratifies the treaty 90-2, and the instruments of ratification are exchanged by Ambassador MacArthur and Foreign Minister Fujiyama in Tokyo, while Zengakuren demonstrators surround the Japanese Foreign Ministry. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

September 8, 1960

The first meeting of the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee is held, established undefr the new security treaty. Participants include Foreign Minister Kosaka, JDA Director General Esaki and CINCPAC Admiral Felt. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

March 12, 1961

Douglas MacArthur II resigns as ambassador to Japan. On April 1, Edwin O. Reischauer is named the new ambassador. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 10, 1961

Foreign Minister Zentaro Kosaka and Ambassador Reischauer sign an agreement on the GARIOA settlement, under which Japan agrees to repay the U.S. $490 million in debts incurred during the U.S. post-war occupation of Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 20-23, 1961

The first Ikeda-Kennedy summit meeting is held in Washington. A joint communiqué expresses both sides' desire to build a new cooperative structure (equal partnership) between the two countries. President John F. Kennedy agrees to create a commission that will examine the economic and social situation in Okinawa. The two governments also agree to establish a Joint Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 11, 1961

President Kennedy approves National Security Action Memorandum 68, "Task Force on the Ryukyus," establishing a task force under Deputy National Security Advisor Carl Kaysen to examine the present situation and U.S. programs in the Ryukyu (Okinawan) Islands. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

March 5, 1962

President Kennedy approves National Security Action Memorandum 133, "Ryukyus Action Program," endorsing recommendations of the Kaysen Task Force on the Ryukyus for actions to improve political, economic, and social conditions on Okinawa. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 9, 1963

Ambassador Reischauer tells the Japanese government that the U.S. wants nuclear-powered submarines to make port calls in Japan. The Japanese government basically agrees. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 14, 1963

Japan signs the Partial Test Ban Treaty. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 26-28, 1964

The third U.S.-Japan Joint Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs is held in Tokyo. Secretary of State Dean Rusk heads the U.S. delegation. In political talks, Foreign Minister Masayoshi Ohira and Rusk discuss China and reach an agreement on the two countries' positions on Communist Chinese recognition and trade. It is also decided that a committee on U.S.-Japan technological cooperation will be established. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

March 24, 1964

Ambassador Reischauer is stabbed by a mentally unstable young man in Japan. After his full recovery in July, the ambassador says that "this small incident will not hurt the deep friendly relationship between the two countries." Home Affairs Minister Hayakawa, chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, assumes responsibility for the stabbing and resigns. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

April 28, 1964

Japan is admitted as the 21st member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), becoming the first Asian nation to join. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

May 15, 1964

The lower house of the Japanese Diet approves the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The upper house approves the treaty on May 25. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 28, 1964

At a cabinet meeting, the Japanese government formally approves port calls by U.S. nuclear-powered submarines. As a result, the first port call is made by USS Sea Dragon to Sasebo on November 12. Polaris missiles are not allowed, and it is agreed that mines containing nuclear weapons will also be prohibited. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

October 25, 1964

Ikeda resigns as prime minister due to ill health; ex-finance minister Eisaku Sato is elected the new prime minister on November 9. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 11-14, 1965

Prime Minister Sato meets with President Lyndon Johnson in Washington, D.C. Sato and Johnson fail to agree on policy toward China. Sato explains that Japan will maintain diplomatic ties with Nationalist China but promote private contact with Communist China, while Johnson restates the U.S. position that it recognizes Nationalist China as the legitimate Chinese government. The U.S. and Japan issue a joint communiqué after the summit reaffirming their partnership and noting their differences over China. The U.S. also agrees to improvements regarding the Okinawa issue, but not to Sato's request that the U.S. return all of the Ryukyu Islands except Okinawa. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 22, 1965

Japan and the Republic of Korea sign the Basic Treaty establishing diplomatic relations. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

December 10, 1965

The U.N. General Assembly selects Japan and six other countries as non-permanent members of the U.N. Security Council, effective January 1, 1966. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

December 18, 1965

The Japan-South Korea treaty comes into effect, and the two countries establish diplomatic relations. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 25, 1966

Ambassador Reischauer resigns. He is replaced by Undersecretary of State U. Alexis Johnson, who becomes ambassador on November 8. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 8, 1967

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is formed. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

November 14-15, 1967

Prime Minister Sato and President Johnson meet in Washington. A joint communiqué is issued on the second day, indicating that the Bonin Islands will be returned to Japan within a year, but no clear date is set for the reversion of Okinawa. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 30, 1968

Prime Minister Sato announces to the Diet the government's Three Non-nuclear Principles (not to develop, introduce, or possess nuclear weapons). These principles are one part of a four-point nuclear policy committing Japan to work for nuclear disarmament, rely on the U.S. nuclear deterrent for defense, and focus on solely civilian nuclear power development. Sato says that any visit to Japan by a nuclear-armed submarine will be subject to the prior consultation clause in the U.S.-Japanese security treaty, and indicates that he would ban such a visit in line with the three principles. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

April 5, 1968

The U.S. and Japan sign the Agreement for Reversion of the Bonin Islands. The islands are returned on June 26th. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

May 28, 1969

President Richard Nixon approves National Security Decision Memorandum 13, "Policy toward Japan," which authorizes negotiations with Japan on the reversion of Okinawa, including the possible removal of U.S. nuclear weapons based on the island. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 3, 1969

Armin Meyer becomes the new U.S. ambassador to Japan, replacing U. Alexis Johnson, who resigned in January. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 22, 1969

The Department of Defense announces that it will remove certain types of chemical weapons, including nerve gas, from its bases in Okinawa. Foreign Minister Kiichi Aichi says the introduction of biological or chemical weapons onto the island after reversion will require "pre-consultation." (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 25, 1969

President Nixon announces the Nixon Doctrine (Guam Doctrine). (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

November 19-21, 1969

Following three days of meetings in Washington, President Nixon and Prime Minister Sato issue a communiqué announcing the return to Japan of Okinawa and other U.S.-held Ryukyu Islands on a non-nuclear basis in 1972. (As part of a secret agreement reportedly reached between Nixon and Sato, the U.S. would be able to return nuclear weapons to the island in the event of a military emergency in the Far East). The communiqué affirms both governments' intentions to renew the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security in 1970. According to later accounts, Sato promised Nixon that he would obtain reductions in Japanese textile exports to the U.S. in exchange for the U.S. agreement to return Okinawa. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

October 24, 1970

President Nixon and Prime Minister Sato confer and agree to resume negotiations, which had collapsed the previous summer, on voluntary restraints on textile exports. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 17, 1971

The Okinawa Reversion Agreement is signed in both Tokyo and Washington. The treaty becomes effective in May 1972. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 15, 1971

President Nixon announces his plans to visit China. The absence of a prior warning to Japan presents the Sato government with the first "Nixon Shock." (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 15, 1971

Following a weekend meeting with his senior economic advisors at Camp David, President Nixon announces emergency economic measures, which stop gold-dollar exchanges and impose a surcharge on imports (the second "Nixon Shock").(Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

October 15, 1971

The U.S. and Japan sign a three-year agreement on textiles, under which Japan agrees to limit its exports of man-made and woolen textiles to the U.S. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 6-7, 1972

Nixon and Sato hold two days of talks in San Clemente, California. The talks are also attended by Henry Kissinger, presidential assistant for national security affairs, and Japanese ambassador Nobuhiko Ushiba, while Secretary of State William P. Rogers confers with Foreign Minister Takeo Fukuda, and cabinet secretaries John Connally (Treasury) and Maurice Stans (Commerce) meet with cabinet ministers Mikio Mizuta and Kakuei Tanaka. The discussions focus on future steps in relations with the People's Republic of China, final arrangements for the return of Okinawa on May 15, and U.S.-Japan security cooperation in Asia. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 26, 1972

President Nixon replaces Armin Meyer with Roibert S. Ingersoll as U.S. ambassador to Japan, believing that the growing importance of economic issues between the two countries required am ambassador with a stronger business background. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

February 9, 1972

U.S.-Japan trade negotiations conducted by Japanese Ambassador Ushiba and Special Trade Representative Eberle conclude with an announcement by the Nixon administration of a major agreement for the significant reduction of import barriers by Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

February 21-27, 1972

Nixon makes his historic trip to China. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 17, 1972

Sato announces his retirement. On July 5, Kakuei Tanaka is elected the new prime minister. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 31-September 1, 1972

President Nixon and prime minister Tanaka hold summit talks in Honolulu. They reaffirm their countries' intentions to maintain the Treaty of Mutual Security and Cooperation. Topics of discussion also include Japan's future role in Asia, the Korean situation, and possible Japanese purchases of U.S. aircraft from U.S. companies. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

September 25-29, 1972

At the end of Prime Minister Tanaka's visit to Beijing, a joint statement is issued on the China-Japan agreement normalizing diplomatic relations between the two countries. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

February 19-20, 1973

National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger visits Japan after his visit to China. While in Tokyo, Kissinger, along with U.S. ambassador Ingersoll, briefs Prime Minister Tanaka and Foreign Minister Ohira on North Vietnam and the results of Kissinger's talks in China. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

April 23, 1973

In a major policy address in New York City, Kissinger proposes a "New Atlantic Charter" to provide the framework for a new relationship between the U.S. and Western Europe, Canada, and Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 31 - August 1, 1973

President Nixon and Prime Minister Tanaka hold two days of talks in Washington, D.C. During the summit, Secretary of State Rogers and Foreign Minister Ohira confer on the energy crisis, the economic reconstruction of Indochina, and the forthcoming U.N. debate on Korea. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 8, 1973

South Korean dissident Kim Dae Jung is kidnapped in Japan by the Korean Central Intelligence Agency. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

September 22, 1973

Henry Kissinger becomes U.S. secretary of state. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

October 6, 1973

The Israeli-Arab War (Yom Kippur War) begins. A ceasefire is reached on October 25. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 19, 1974

James Hodgson, former vice president of Lockheed Corporation, becomes the U.S. ambassador to Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 9, 1974

Facing impeachment over the Watergate scandal, President Nixon resigns and Gerald Ford is sworn in as president. The same day, Ford and Kissinger meet with Japanese ambassador Takeshi Yasukawa to discuss the new administration's foreign policy. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

November 19-20, 1974

President Ford visits Japan, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to travel to that country, where he meets with Emperor Hirohito and Prime Minister Tanaka. The topics of discussion include energy, trade, monetary reform, and inflation; the joint communiqué stresses the need for new initiatives on trade, energy, and food, and the importance of U.S.-Japan cooperation for Asian stability. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

November 26, 1974

Prime Minister Tanaka resigns because of a financial scandal related to the Lockheed bribery case. A new cabinet is formed under Takeo Miki on December 9. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 18, 1975

Kissinger, in a major policy speech on Asia before the Japan Society of New York City, pledges that despite recent setbacks in Indochina, the U.S. "will not turn away from Asia" and will continue to oppose efforts by any country to impose its will by force on the Asian continent. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

August 5-6, 1975

President Ford and Prime Minister Miki hold a summit meeting in Washington, D.C. The two leaders issue statements stressing that the maintenance of peace on the Korean peninsula is vital to peace and security in East Asia and that U.S. troops will not be withdrawn from Korea, and reiterating both nations' support for the mutual security treaty. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

November 15-17, 1975

The first economic summit meeting among the developed countries is held in Rambouillet, France. Prime Minister Miki, President Ford, West German chancellor Helmut Schmidt, British prime minister Harold Wilson, Italian prime minister Aldo Moro, and French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing participate. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

February 4, 1976

Hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations reveal that the Lockheed Corporation gave large sums of money (reportedly amounting to $7 million) to high-level officials in the Japanese government as well as to Japanese rightists with political and underworld ties, as part of the company's efforts to promote sales of Tristar and P3C aircraft. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

June 30, 1976

Prime Minister Miki visits Washington to meet with President Ford before the U.S. bicentennial anniversary. The two leaders exchange views on the 200-nautical-mile limit, bilateral civil aviation negotiations, Asian developments, and the Middle East. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

July 27, 1976

Former prime minister Kakuei Tanaka is arrested in connection with the Lockheed bribery scandal. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

December 17, 1976

Prime Minister Miki announces he will resign. One week later, Takeo Fukuda takes office. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1960-1976, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2001))

January 27, 1977

Former prime minister Tanaka and four other defendants go on trial in Tokyo District Court on charges of accepting bribes from Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Tanaka is accused of having influenced, while premier, the Transport Ministry to expedite All Nippon Airways' purchase of Lockheed planes between 1972 and 1974, and of having accepted $1.6 million in bribes to arrange the deal. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

March 21-22, 1977

Prime Minister Fukuda meets with President Jimmy Carter in Washington. Fukuda urges Carter to retain a U.S. military presence in the Pacific, and Carter reaffirms his promise to consult Seoul and Tokyo before withdrawing U.S. forces from South Korea. Other topics of discussion include the continuing U.S.-Japan trade imbalance, and the Japanese plan to build a nuclear processing plant, which Carter opposes as a potential nuclear proliferation risk. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 10, 1977

Former Senator Mike Mansfield presents his credentials as U.S. ambassador to Japan. He serves for the next 11 years, virtually to the end of the Reagan administration. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

December 6, 1977

After negotiations with Japan, Carter announces a plan to curb steel imports and revitalize the U.S. steel industry. The plan is to restrict imports hinged on a trigger price based on Japanese costs of production. Imports sold below the trigger level in the U.S. market will be subject to heavy duties. The plan also will provide direct aid to U.S. domestic steel producers. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

August 12, 1978

China and Japan sign a 10-year Treaty of Peace and Friendship in Beijing. The pact pledges mutual respect for each other's sovereignty and territory, mutual nonaggression and noninterference in the domestic affairs of each country, and calls for settlement of all disputes through peaceful means. As part of the agreement, China drops its claim to the Senkaku Islands and indicates that it will not renew the 30-year Sino-Soviet treaty when it expires in 1980. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 27, 1978

Prime Minister Fukuda unexpectedly loses the first round of an election for the presidency of the Liberal Democratic Party to Masayoshi Ohira, the party's secretary-general. Fukuda withdraws his candidacy, giving Ohira the LDP presidency and the premiership of Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 30-May 6, 1979

Ohira visits the U.S to meet with Carter. The subsequent joint communiqué notes bilateral efforts to achieve a "more harmonious pattern of international trade and payments," including steps by Japan to open its markets while the U.S. works to control inflation. Also, Carter's decision to slow the pullout of U.S. forces from South Korea eases Japan's concern about the possible lessening of the U.S. commitment to East Asian security. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

June 23-29, 1979

President Carter departs for a seven-nation economic summit in Japan, where he also holds two days of talks with Prime Minister Ohira. The overriding issue for the economic summit is the need to address the impact of the energy crisis and reliance on Middle East oil. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 23, 1980

President Carter announces what will become known as the Carter Doctrine, declaring that an attack on the Persian Gulf region will be considered an "assault on the vital interests of the United States." (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

May 1, 1980

Prime Minister Ohira meets with President Carter and congressional leaders in Washington for talks aimed in part at softening criticism in the U.S. of huge imbalances in automotive trade between the two countries. Ohira reportedly urges Carter not to use force but diplomatic means to resolve the Iranian hostage crisis, while Carter assures Ohira that the U.S. will provide assistance to Japan if the loss of Iranian oil imports causes Japan trouble. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 9, 1980

President Carter and Emperor Hirohito, Acting Prime Minister Ito, and Liberal Democrat leaders, including Zenko Suzuki, meet after attending a memorial service for the late Prime Minister Ohira. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 17, 1980

Zenko Suzuki is elected prime minister by the Diet. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 7, 1981

The Japan-U.S. Economic Relations Group (informally called the Wise Men), chaired by former U. S. ambassador to Japan Robert S. Ingersoll, issues measures to improve economic ties between the two countries, with stronger adherence to free trade principles. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 20, 1981

Ronald Reagan is inaugurated president. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

May 4-9, 1981

Premier Suzuki visits the U.S. to discuss increasing Japan's defense responsibilities and U.S.-Japan trade relations. In a joint communiqué, Japan agrees to make "even greater efforts" to improve its defenses in general, while both countries affirm their interest in maintaining peace and stability in Asia, and reaffirm the importance of the U.S.-Japan security alliance. On May 9, Premier Suzuki meets with U.S. trade negotiator William Brock and agrees to a mutual reduction of semiconductor tariffs to 4.2 percent of import value. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

May 17, 1981

In a newspaper interview, Edwin O. Reischauer, the former U.S. ambassador to Japan, says that U.S. Navy ships armed with nuclear weapons had been visiting Japan's ports and traveling through its waters under terms of a 1960 U.S.-Japanese tacit understanding. Tokyo's policy was that it barred the "introduction" of nuclear weapons, but the U.S. understanding was that "introduction" meant putting nuclear weapons ashore or storing them, and did not prevent the moving of weapons through Japan. A Japanese official says that "there has been no introduction of nuclear weapons into Japan," and the State Department says it is the Department's policy not to discuss publicly the deployment of nuclear weapons. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 10, 1982

The U.S., in the first major test of its allies' willingness to support, at least passively, President Ronald Reagan's sanctions against the Soviet Union in the wake of Poland's crackdown on the Solidarity trade union, asks European nations and Japan to stop supplying vital components for a new pipeline to carry Soviet natural gas into Western Europe. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

September 26-October 1, 1982

Prime Minister Suzuki visits China for the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the two nations. In a meeting with Suzuki, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping affirms China's support for Japanese efforts to strengthen its defenses and for the U.S.-Japan alliance. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 26, 1982

Yasuhiro Nakasone becomes leader of the Liberal Democratic Party and prime minister of Japan. Nakasone says his new administration will give priority to improving trade and security ties with the U.S. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 17-20, 1983

Prime Minister Nakasone meets with President Reagan in Washington, where Reagan urges him to open Japanese markets to U.S. imports and to increase defense spending more rapidly. Nakasone later meets with House and Senate members, to whom he confirms that Japan plans to defend "several hundred miles" of ocean and 1,000 miles of sea lane. Summing up the meetings, Reagan describes U.S. relations with Japan as a troubled but happy marriage. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 30-31, 1983

Secretary of State George Shultz visits Tokyo as part of a 12-day trip to Japan, China, South Korea and Hong Kong. In his meetings with Prime Minister Nakasone and Foreign Minister Abe, Shultz promises that the U.S. will not risk the security of Japan and other non-European countries when negotiating medium-range missile control with the Soviet Union. Shultz also tells Nakasone that Japan must open its markets further and expand its defense capabilities. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

October 12, 1983

Former prime minister Tanaka is found guilty of having accepted $2.1 million in bribes from the Lockheed Corporation to arrange the purchase of Lockheed aircraft by Japan's largest domestic airline. Tokyo District Court sentences him to four years in prison and fines him $2.1 million. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 1, 1983

The Japanese government announces that it will extend voluntary restrictions on the number of cars exported from Japan to the U.S. for a fourth year, following negotiations between Special Representative Brock and minister of international trade and industry Uno. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 8, 1983

Japan and the U.S. reach a final agreement on the export of Japanese military-related technology to the U.S. Under the accord, a Joint Military Technology Commission is to be created, Japanese representatives on the commission will have to approve future import requests by the U.S., and the U.S. will not re-export Japanese military technology to third countries without prior approval from Tokyo. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 9, 1983

President Reagan arrives in Tokyo, where he is welcomed in a ceremony conducted by Emperor Hirohito, on the first stop of a seven-day trip to Japan and South Korea designed to strengthen economic and political ties with both countries. The first U.S. president to address the Diet, Reagan warns about growing protectionist sentiments in the U.S., reasserts his commitment to reach an arms-control agreement with the Soviet Union, reaffirms America's nuclear responsibilities, and says that Japan and the U.S. could form "a powerful partnership for good." After their meeting, Reagan and Nakasone pledge renewed efforts to solve U.S.-Japan trade problems, and announce an accord to strengthen the yen against the dollar, in order to reduce the massive U.S. trade deficit with Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

March 23-26, 1984

Prime Minister Nakasone visits China, where he meets with General Secretary Hu Yaobang, as well as Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang. Topics discussed include increasing Japan's investment in China, and China's backing for North Korea's proposed peace talks involving the two nations and the U.S. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

May 8-10, 1984

Vice President George H. W. Bush visits Tokyo during a two-week trip to Asia, where he discusses trade and economic issues with Japanese officials. Bush warns Prime Minister Nakasone and Foreign Minister Abe that Japan's trade surplus with the U.S. puts a strain on U.S.-Japan relations. To address this problem Bush calls for lower Japanese tariffs on U.S. lumber and wine, and for the further liberalization of Japan's financial and capital markets. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

September 6-8, 1984

South Korean President Chun Doo Hwan visits Japan, becoming the first South Korean leader to make an official visit there since 1945. Leadership talks focus on national security issues. In a joint statement, Nakasone calls for a "direct dialogue" between the two Koreas and appeals for the admittance of North and South Korea to the United Nations. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 2, 1985

President Reagan and Prime Minister Nakasone meet in Los Angeles, agreeing to arrange high-level talks exploring ways to open several Japanese markets to American products. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 10, 1986

Year-long Market-Oriented, Sector-Selective (MOSS) talks between the U.S. and Japan on four product areas end, with the greatest progress achieved in telecommunications. Secretary of State Shultz and Foreign Minister Shintaro Abe issue a joint agreement to continue the talks. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 12-14, 1986

Prime minister Nakasone visits the U.S., where he meets with President Reagan at Camp David. Nakasone says that his government's expansionary economic policies and measures to encourage imports, along with the stronger yen, should lead to a decline in the Japanese trade surplus with the United States by autumn. Reagan praises Nakasone for his commitment to economic reform and says that the relationship between the two countries remains "strong and vital." (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 31, 1986

The U.S. and Japan sign a five-year trade pact on computer chips. Under the pact, Japan will take steps to allow foreign microchip makers to increase their share of the Japanese market to reportedly more than 20 percent by 1991, and will also police Japanese manufacturers, to guard against dumping in foreign countries. The U.S. agrees to suspend the tariffs on Japanese chips that it had imposed in May, but stresses that the sanctions could be re-imposed if the conditions of the agreement are not met. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

March 27, 1987

The Reagan administration announces that the U.S. has decided to impose duties of 100 percent on a wide range of popular electronic products imported from Japan. This action comes after Tokyo's alleged failure to satisfy the 1986 agreement barring Japanese companies from selling semiconductor chips in the U.S. for less than "fair market value" as determined by the U.S. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 29-May 2, 1987

Prime Minister Nakasone visits Washington for talks with President Reagan, where they pledge to reduce the "politically unsustainable" $58 billion Japanese trade surplus with the U.S. (part of Japan's record trade surplus of $101.4 billion during fiscal year 1986). Nakasone states that the government will open Japanese markets more to foreign countries and will buy more imported goods. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 7, 1987

Following the revelation that Toshiba Corporation has sold sensitive defense-related technology to the Soviet Union, the U.S. Commerce Department decides that Toshiba must obtain individual licenses for every product of strategic value that it wants to import from the U.S. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 21, 1987

Japan formally joins the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative. The agreement is signed in Washington by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger and Nobuo Matsunaga, Japan's ambassador to the U.S. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

September 20, 1987

Prime Minister Nakasone, in New York for the United Nations General Assembly, meets with President Reagan to discuss a wide range of issues, including Japanese concerns about trade legislation pending in Congress, and proposed American import sanctions against Toshiba Corporation products in retaliation for the sale, by a Toshiba subsidiary, of sensitive technology to the Soviet Union. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 6, 1987

Noboru Takeshita becomes the new prime minister of Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 12-15, 1988

Prime Minister Takeshita meets in Washington with President Reagan. The discussions focus on resolving the persistent economic problems between the two countries, including reducing the U.S. trade deficit with Japan, stabilizing the falling dollar, and reducing Japanese interest rates. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 6, 1989

Emperor Hirohito dies of cancer. President Reagan extends condolences to his family and to the people of Japan, and announces that President-elect Bush will lead the U.S. delegation to the funeral. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 20, 1989

George H. W. Bush is inaugurated president of the United States. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 31, 1989

President Bush names career diplomat Michael H. Armacost as U.S. ambassador to Japan, replacing Mike Mansfield who ended his tour on December 22, 1988. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

February 1-7, 1989

Prime Minister Takeshita visits the United States, where he confers with President Bush on military and trade issues. Secretary of State James Baker and Foreign Minister Sosuke Uno meet to discuss a plan for joint production of a new Japanese fighter plane, the FSX. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

March 25, 1989

President Bush attempts to revise the FSX development accord in response to congressional and administrative criticism that Japanese access to American technology might provide a competitive advantage, and that not enough of the work will go to American companies. The delay in negotiations leads to sharp expressions of irritation and bitterness among Japanese officials, and is seen as an early challenge to the Bush administration's diplomatic skills in dealing with Tokyo. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 28, 1989

Trade Representative Carla A. Hills announces that the U.S. will retaliate against Japan for restricting U.S. access to its telecommunications market unless the situation is remedied immediately. Hill says that Japan has violated the Market-Oriented Sector-Selective (MOSS) agreements signed by the two countries in the mid-1980s. A Japanese embassy spokesman in Washington counters that Japan has honored the MOSS agreement and expresses regret that the U.S. has taken such this action. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 28, 1989

President Bush announces that Japan and the U.S. have concluded a revised accord on joint development of the FSX fighter plane. Under the pact, the U.S. will be guaranteed about 40 percent of the development and production work on the FSX. The deal also provides for U.S. access to new technology developed by Japan during production of the plane. The agreement survives a motion of disapproval in Congress in early May. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

May 25, 1989

President Bush identifies Japan, Brazil, and India as unfair traders under the Super 301 provision of the 1988 Omnibus Trade Act. If they fail to eliminate the cited unfair trading practices within 12 to 18 months, they will be subject to U.S. trade retaliation. The U.S. cites Japan's restriction of purchases of satellites, supercomputers, and forest products. The president authorizes sweeping bilateral negotiations with Japan aimed at eliminating "structural impediments to trade" in the Japanese economy. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

June 2, 1989

Foreign Minister Uno is elected prime minister of Japan, replacing Takeshita, who resigned over his involvement in the Recruit real estate stock scandal. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

August 9, 1989

Former education minister Toshiki Kaifu becomes the new premier of Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

August 31-September 5, 1989

Prime Minister Kaifu visits the U.S. to offer assurances that recent political turmoil has not undermined Japan's dependability or willingness to negotiate thorny trade and security disputes, and to shore up his political standing at home. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

February 20-23, 1990

Defense Secretary Richard B. Cheney visits Japan after touring South Korea and the Philippines. Japanese government leaders accept the U.S. plan for withdrawal of 5,000 to 6,000 American troops stationed in Japan, as Cheney stresses that the announcement does not imply a lessening of U.S. commitment to Asian security. Cheney also asks Prime Minister Kaifu for increases in Japan's monetary support for the U.S. troops stationed in Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

March 2-3, 1990

Prime Minister Kaifu meets with President Bush in Palm Springs, California, and promises action to resolve the trade imbalance between the two countries, stating that Japan would base its future economic growth less on exports and more on domestic demand for consumer goods and services. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

June 28, 1990

Following a marathon four-day session, the U.S. and Japan sign a final agreement that commits both nations to reforming their domestic economies with the aim of reducing the U.S. trade deficit with Japan, concluding the second stage of the Strategic Impediments Initiative (SII). The agreement, reached only with the personal intervention of President Bush and Prime Minister Kaifu, commits Japan to more concrete measures aimed at stimulating domestic consumption and opening up the market. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

October 16, 1990

The Japanese cabinet approves a plan to send Japanese Self Defense Forces to join the U.S.-led force deployed in the Persian Gulf in the wake of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Under the plan, the troops will be permitted to fill only non-combat roles, but could carry weapons for personal defense. Though Prime Minister Kaifu claims that the mission "does not involve the threat or the use of force and is fully compatible with the Constitution," there is much opposition to the plan within Japan. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 10, 1990

Japan's LDP formally withdraws its proposal to send Japanese non-combat soldiers to Saudi Arabia to join U.S.-led forces against Iraq, because of strong resistance among the public and opposition party members. Instead, Japan will provide an all-civilian corps of medical and technical personnel for deployment to the Gulf region. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 16, 1991

The Persian Gulf War begins. The war ends on February 27 with President Bush's announcement that Kuwait has been liberated. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 4, 1991

President Bush and Prime Minister Kaifu, in a lunch meeting in Newport Beach, California, seek to ease tensions arising from trade issues and from American criticism of Japan's role in the Persian Gulf War. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 17-19, 1991

Mikhail S. Gorbachev visits Japan, the first-ever visit by a Soviet president. His meeting with Prime Minister Kaifu focuses mainly on the Kuril Islands, on which an agreement remains elusive. In a joint statement, they agree that the islands are the primary obstacle to improved Soviet-Japanese relations. To ease the situation, Gorbachev agrees to allow the Japanese to visit the islands without visas; and says that the Soviet Union will reduce its military presence there. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

April 24, 1991

Premier Kaifu announces the deployment of six naval vessels to the Persian Gulf to clear mines laid there by Iraq. This action, the first foreign mission by Japanese armed forces since World War II, is widely supported in public opinion polls because of the ceasefire in the Gulf. Kaifu also announces an additional $82.5 million for emergency relief for refugees from Iraq. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

June 4, 1991

The U.S. and Japan sign a new agreement on semiconductors. The pact will last for three years and aims at expanding the U.S. share of the Japanese market. In return for the Japanese concessions, the U.S. agrees to lift the remaining $155 million of import duty sanctions imposed during the Reagan administration. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 11, 1991

President Bush and Prime Minister Kaifu meet at Bush's Kennebunkport, Maine, home to settle the question of the $500 million-a-year payment that the U.S. wanted as Japan's contribution to the Persian Gulf War. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 5, 1991

Following his accession to the presidency of the LDP on October 27, Kiichi Miyazawa is formally appointed prime minister of Japan at a special Diet session, succeeding Toshiki Kaifu. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

November 11, 1991

Secretary of State Baker meets with Prime Minister Miyazawa in Tokyo. In public statements during his visit, Baker calls on Japan to assume a more active role in protecting democracy and advocating free trade, saying that Japan should stop relying on "checkbook diplomacy" to protect its narrow interests, and should not wait to be pressured by other countries to take action. More specifically, Baker seeks a greater Japanese role in promoting compromise in global free-trade talks, in United Nations peace-keeping efforts, and in the campaign to dissuade North Korea from developing nuclear weapons. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 7-9, 1992

President Bush visits Japan for meetings with Prime Minister Miyazawa as part of an 11-day tour of Australia and Asia. The primary emphasis of the discussions is trade, as Bush has cast his journey as a relentless "quest to boost exports and create more jobs for Americans. The two countries issue a joint declaration pledging cooperation in collectively defending Asia in the post-Cold War era. These accomplishments are overshadowed, however, by Bush's collapse during a state dinner on January 8 due to a stomach virus. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 30, 1992

During a meeting with President Bush in New York City, Prime Minister Miyazawa tries to smooth over recent tensions in U.S.-Japan trade relations, assuring Bush that Japan will make good on its promises to import more U.S. products, particularly automobile parts. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

July 1, 1992

Prime Minister Miyazawa visits President Bush at the White House, where he promises that he will use "every possible means" to expand his country's domestic growth and stimulate more markets for American exports. On diplomatic and security issues, they discuss the problem of the Kuril Islands and concerns over North Korea's nuclear weapons efforts. Miyazawa assures Bush that Japan will not open full diplomatic ties with North Korea until it is clear that nation is not developing nuclear weapons. (Chronology in Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, 1977-1992, ed. Robert A. Wampler (Washington, D.C.: The National Security Archive and Chadwyck-Healey, 2005))

January 20, 1993

William J. Clinton is inaugurated president of the United States. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

April 15-17, 1993

Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa visits the U.S. for meetings with President Clinton. The meetings, which center on the deepening trade problems between the two countries, are strained, and marked by mutual scolding for their respective governments' positions. The discussions produce little beyond a general agreement to continue searching for a definition of what would constitute a "middle ground" to bridge the differences. (NYT, April 17, 1993)

July 6-10, 1993

President Clinton visits Japan for an economic summit. The same month, the U.S. and Japan launch a "Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective" (the Common Agenda) (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

September 27, 1993

Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa visits the U.S., where he holds a private get-acquainted meeting with President Clinton during the U.N. General Assembly session in New York. (NYT, September 28, 1993)

November 19-20, 1993

Prime Minister Hosokawa visits the U.S. to attend an APEC meeting in Seattle. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

February 10-12, 1994

Prime Minister Hosokawa visits the U.S. for talks with President Clinton. The meetings are marked by the collapse of ongoing trade negotiations.(NYT, February 13, 1994)

June 11-15, 1994

Emperor Akihito visits the U.S (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

February 27, 1995

The Pentagon issues a report, "United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region." This report laid out the strategic rationale for U.S. military objectives in the region and thus provided a key framework for the future course of the security relationship between Washington and Tokyo (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

June 28, 1995

A last-minute U.S.-Japan compromise agreement averts the imposition of U.S. trade sanctions on Japanese luxury cars (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

February 23, 1996

Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto visits the U.S. for meetings with President Clinton in Santa Monica, California, to discuss Clinton's upcoming visit to Japan. (NYT, February 24, 1996)

April 16-18, 1996

President Clinton visits Japan. The summit produces the "Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security Alliance for the 21st Century," and a plan to reduce the scope and intrusiveness of U.S. forces in Okinawa. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

December 2, 1996

U.S. and Japanese officials sign an agreement to substantially reduce the profile of U.S. forces in Okinawa; the SACO (Special Action Committee on Okinawa) Final Report is approved. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

April 24-26, 1997

Prime Minister Hashimoto visits the U.S. President Clinton warns that the recent resurgence of Japan's trade imbalance with the U.S. threatens to deepen the political divisions between the two countries over the slow pace of Tokyo's efforts to open its markets to the world and deregulate its economy. (NYT, April 26, 1997)

December 11, 1997

The U.N. conference on global warming ends in Kyoto with production of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse emissions. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

February 26, 1998

The 1998 U.S. trade deficit with Japan is put at $64 billion. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

June 16, 1998

The U.S. and Japanese governments intervene in currency markets to strengthen the yen relative to the dollar. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

September 1, 1998

After Pyongyang's launch the previous day of a nuclear-capable ballistic missile over Japan, the Japanese government suspends talks on diplomatic relations, food aid, and support for multi-billion-dollar nuclear-power reactors in North Korea, which are part of the 1994 Framework Agreement between the U.S. and North Korea. . (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

September 20, 1998

In New York, U.S. and Japanese defense and foreign ministry heads reaffirm pledges to revitalize the alliance; agree to cooperate on research for a missile defense system to protect Japan from North Korea's rising ballistic missile capability; and call on North Korea to honor commitments made in the 1994 U.S.-North Korean Agreed Framework accord. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

September 23, 1998

President Clinton and Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi meet in New York, where the talks center on Japan's recession and on $1 trillion in bad bank debt. (NYT, September 23, 1998)

November 16, 1998

The Japanese government announces a $195 billion economic stimulus plan. The next day, the United States and Japan announce a $10 billion financing and debt restructuring initiative for struggling Asian economies. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

November 19-20, 1998

President Clinton visits Japan for summit talks with prime minister Obuchi. The two days of talks produce no real progress on addressing the festering economic and trade disagreements between the two governments. (NYT, November 21, 1998)

January 7, 1999

A Clinton administration report says that Japan is "the single largest contributor to the current pressures faced by the American steel industry." Later in the month, in his State of the Union address, President Clinton criticizes surging Japanese steel exports to the United States. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

May 2-4, 1999

Prime Minister Obuchi visits the U.S. His talks with President Clinton underscore the way in which the lengthy recession has significantly reduced U.S. hopes for the liberalization of the Japanese economy and other ambitious economic initiatives to address the long-standing trade disagreements between the two counties. (NYT, May 4, 1999)

June 11, 1999

The U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) makes a final determination that imports of hot-rolled steel from Japan and several other countries are harmful to U.S. industries. On July 20, the ITC makes a preliminary determination that cold-rolled steel imports from Japan and 11 other countries injure the American steel industry. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

July 27, 1999

At the ASEAN Regional Forum, the United States, Japan, and South Korea issue a strong warning to North Korea not to carry out further ballistic missile tests. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

April 2, 2000

Japanese prime minister Obuchi suffers a massive stroke that leaves him in a fatal coma. He is succeeded by Yoshiro Mori. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

May 5, 2000

President Clinton and Japanese prime minister Mori hold a brief meeting in Washington to become acquainted, with Clinton using the talks to press the new prime minister on the need to open Japan's telecommunications market. (NYT, May 6, 2000)

June 8, 2000

While attending former Prime Minister Obuchi's funeral, President Clinton meets with Prime Minister Mori, and raises economic issues, including the question of Japan's financial support for U.S. troops in Japan. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)

July 21-23, 2000

President Clinton attends the G-8 summit meeting in Okinawa. (United States Embassy. Japan, "Chronology of U.S.-Japan Relations," http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/ e/jusa-usj-chronology.html)